Book Review: Geauga Lake: Sunrise to Sunset

REVIEWJeffrey Seifert, staff writer for Amusement Today
All photos courtesy of Cleveland Landmarks Press

For more than a century, families in northeast Ohio could look forward to spending a fun-filled day at Geauga Lake Park. Then suddenly following the end of the season in 2007, corporate owner Cedar Fair announced the park would never reopen. 100 years of history, memories and tradition were suddenly gone without explanation and, worse yet, no one was given the opportunity for one last visit to say goodbye.

Despite the lack of a proper farewell, the memories have been kept alive by the thousands of fans the park endeared over the past century. One such fan — a former employee of the park — has gathered photos, stories and precious memories and assembled them into a new book: Geauga Lake: Sunrise to Sunset.

Published by Cleveland Landmarks Press Inc., the 112-page book documents the rise of the recreation area once known as Giles Pond to a full-fledged amusement park to its shocking close and now agonizing decay. Author Tom Smolko with writing partner Joe Taylor along with several park historians and Geauga Lake experts have assembled a remarkable collection of images and text spanning nine chapters to tell the story of northeast Ohio’s Geauga Lake Park.

As settlers moved into the area originally set aside as Connecticut’s Western Reserve, the Ohio General Assembly started dividing the land into manageable counties. Geauga County, formed in 1806 was named for the Native American word for raccoon — jyo’aka.

Picnic Tables at Geauga Lake

In 1817, Joel S. Giles purchased 100 acres on the northeast side of the naturally formed “kettle lake,” left behind from the retreat of the Wisconsin glacier 15,000 years earlier. Giles’ sons started adding modest amenities including picnic tables and small boats available for rent. Visitors to the area began to refer to the property as Picnic Lake or Giles Pond. In 1888 Alexander Kent realized the potential for expanded visitation by purchasing property and erecting a 75-room hotel known as the Kent House. Opposite the hotel, the Giles brothers erected a dance hall and other entertainment facilities. In 1889 the first ride joined the offerings — a steam powered carousel. By that time properties along the lake included baseball diamonds, tennis courts, a restaurant, shooting gallery and roller skating rink. During this time other businesses that sprang up along the shore started referring to the lake as Geauga Lake, in reference to the county in which it was located.

Good Stands

Though doing well, the Giles brothers eventually decided to give up ownership. In 1924, William J. Kuhlman along with two close friends, Edward Taylor and Frederick Rand, purchased the 100-acre property. This threesome would be responsible for changing the area into an amusement park. Over the winter, contractors were hired and by June of 1925 the property had been transformed. Highlighting the new park was a $50,000 National Amusement Devices roller coaster. Then known as the Skyrocket, the John Miller-designed coaster featured a 65-foot drop and raced along its 2,680-foot course at speeds of 32 mph. Eventually renamed the Big Dipper, the coaster thrilled generations of thrill seekers right up until the closure of the park. It is the only ride still standing at the abandoned park.

Big Dipper front entrance

Kuhlman continued to expand the park until the summer of 1944 when he was tragically killed in a motor vehicle accident. Though his death shocked the Geauga Lake community, his niece, Viola Schryer, who had been working as Kuhlman’s assistant, vowed to continue her uncle’s work. The park struggled through the war years but managed to survive to entertain the new generation of baby boomers that resulted when the troops came home. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s companies and organizations held annual picnics at the park. On August 1, 1968, Cleveland’s popular radio station, WIXY 1260, held an appreciation day at the park drawing an estimated 100,000 to 120,000 people. The healthy revenue stream would help move Geauga Lake into its next chapter.

Geuaga Lake towerFour employees of Geauga Lake’s main competitor, Cedar Point, in nearby Sandusky, Ohio, left Cedar Point, pooled their resources and formed a new company — Funtime, Inc. On November 5, 1968, Funtime purchased Geauga Lake Park for $5 million. The Funtime years were perhaps the most profitable for the park as these four “disgruntled” Cedar Point employees changed Geauga Lake from a small family-owned park to a force in the industry. Additions to the park included a monorial, observation tower, log flume and multiple flat rides. The introduction of the world’s first steel roller coaster with back-to-back double loops, simply known as Double-Loop, thrust Geauga Lake into the limelight. This was quickly followed by another steel coaster, Corkscrew, in 1978.

The 1970s also brought another attraction to the area. Though originally perceived as competition, George Millay’s second Sea World marine mammal park on the opposite side of the lake heralded a partnership that benefited both parks for 30 years.

By 1995, Funtime, Inc. had grown into a multi-million dollar corporation with three parks under its ownership. That same year, Oklahoma City-based Premier Parks, in the midst of an inexplicable buying spree, made an offer to purchase Funtime for $60 million. In August of 1995, Premier took ownership of Geauga Lake Park bringing an end to local ownership. It was a change that would ultimately diminish the park, leading to its eventual sale to long-time competitor Cedar Fair in 2004. Three years later, Cedar Fair shuttered the amusement park. The park had survived the Great Depression, two World Wars, and multiple ownership changes, but somehow, Cedar Fair, which successfully managed multiple parks throughout North America, was unable to turn a profit at one sole park — Geauga Lake.

Front Gate

In addition to the remarkable yet heartbreaking story, Geauga Lake: Sunrise to Sunset offers an amazing collection of mostly black & white photos including some of the earliest photos ever taken of the area. An appendix lists the disposition of the rides that were sold when the park closed as well as their current location if they are operating. A 15-page color inset features full-color photos of the park at various times, including a look at the abandoned park as it appears today.

The book retails for $21.50 and is available at, amazon. com and can be ordered through local Barnes & Noble bookstores. It is a must-have for anyone who ever had the opportunity to experience a day at northeast Ohio’s once popular home-grown park.

This article first appeared in the February 2015, issue of Amusement Today, and is reprinted here courtesy of Amusement Today. For subscription information, visit

Dinn and Summers — A brief resurgence in wooden coasters

STORYJeffrey Seifert, American Coaster Enthusiasts

2013 marked the 25th anniversary of the coasters built by the team of Curtis Summers and Charlie Dinn. Over a period of four years, ten of these Dinn & Summers coasters as they would become to be known were constructed at various parks across the United States.


Charles Dinn began working for the Taft Broadcasting Company as an electrician at Cincinnati’s Coney Island Amusement Park in 1969. He oversaw much of the construction of Kings Island when Taft decided to close Coney Island and move to a new location safe from the flood plain of the Ohio River. Construction for the 1978/1979 Kings Island’s Beast project was handled by Charlie Dinn, who had worked his way up to head of maintenance. Designed primarily by Jeffrey Gramke and Al Collins, Curtis Summers was also involved with engineering the support structure for the helix. In 1981? Charlie Dinn left Kings Island and formed the Dinn Corporation. One of the corporation’s first projects was moving the San Antonio Playland Rocket to Knoebels Grove in Pennsylvania.

Curtis Summers spent nearly 35 years maintaining, designing, building and rebuilding roller coasters. He began doing work for the Taft Broadcasting Company in 1958 when he was asked to do structural repairs to the Shooting Star coaster at Taft’s Coney Island in Cincinnati. When Coney Island closed in 1970 to be replaced by Kings Island, Summers was asked by the newly formed Taft subsidiary, Kings Entertainment Company (KECO) to design most of the buildings for the new park. Although the two new coasters at the park were designed by John Allen of PTC, Summers provided the structural engineering for the rides. Summers continued to provide structural engineering for the buildings and coasters that were constructed for Kings Dominion in Virginia in 1975. KECO was looking to build two more coasters for their newly acquired Carowinds park in the Carolinas. But John Allen, then president of PTC wanted to retire. He built Screemin’ Eagle for Six Flags St. Louis in 1976, but was not willing to take on additional projects that year. Curtis Summers stepped up to the plate and designed the Thunder Road and Scooby Doo coasters at Carowinds based on John Allen’s designs from Kings Dominion. His relationship with Taft/KECO continued as he designed and built two new coasters for Canada’s Wonderland outside of Toronto. Some sources indicate the coasters were built by PTC, they were however, built in-house by KECO as PTC had been out of the coaster building business since John Allen retired in 1976.

Although Charlie Dinn and Curtis Summers worked together for many years with Taft Broadcasting, they first joined forces outside of Taft/KECO in 1985 with the move of Paragon Park’s Giant Coaster to Wild World. Dinn moved and rebuilt the coaster while Summers provided the design for the restoration of the coaster’s missing helix. In 1986 the two worked together to rebuild and modify Lake Compounce’s Wildcat. The two companies always remained separate, but from 1988 to 1991 every coaster built by the Dinn Corporation was engineered by Curtis Summers, Inc.

The beginning

1987 was to mark the first year the collaborative team constructed a brand-new coaster—two as a matter of fact, both opening in the Spring of 1988. Over near the eastern shore of Lake Michigan a little park famous for its herd of deer, was rebranding itself both figuratively and literally as an Adventure Park. And what better way to do so than with the introduction of a wood coaster? Park owner Roger Jourden asked Curtis Summers for a coaster similar to the Phoenix at Knoebels Grove. Summers avoided the complications that come with a figure-eight design and instead opted for a double oval without the center crossovers. The Wolverine Wildcat had many features reminiscent of the Phoenix, including the same number of drops and turns and the famous double-up double-down combo, but the coaster is taller and was unique enough to give it a different riding experience. It was well-received by both ACEers and the general public as Michigan was without a wood coaster since the closure of Edgewater park in 1982. More importantly was its impact on the park now known as Michigan’s Adventure. As the coaster was still breaking in, Jourden was making it known that the Wildcat was just the beginning. This oldest operating Dinn and Summers coaster still stands along the edge of the lake in the center of the park, beautifully reflected in the waters below. It celebrates its 20th anniversary this summer.

Wolverine Wildcat

For many years Geauga Lake Park stood in the shadow of the behemoth in Sandusky. But this charming, century-old park with its unique character, served as a less-crowded destination for Northeast Ohioans. In the 60s, 70s and 80s, the park owners steadily added new attractions in a controlled growth befitting a park of its size. Park management obtained the blueprints to the famous Bobs coaster at Riverview Park in Chicago, and asked Charlie Dinn to build a coaster for the park’s centennial celebration in 1988. Curtis Summers designed the Raging Wolf Bobs using a similar Riverview Bobs footprint but modified the drops and turns. Because of the ride’s many banked turns, Charlie Dinn requested that PTC come up with a more flexible design for their trains. PTC’s Sam High designed a six-car train that featured smaller four seat cars connected together with a trailer hitch. Unfortunately in an attempt to balance the car on a single axel, High moved the hitch point to the back of the car. As each car negotiated a turn, the hitch point being too far back from the axel, got pushed in the opposite direction. As a result, each car tended to oscillate in a side to side motion as the train negotiated turns in the track. This motion quickly became known to enthusiasts as the “Dinn shuffle.” These original trailered trains remained on the coaster until the end of the 2002 season, when they were finally replaced with a pair of Gerstlauer trains. After several ownership changes, the park ended up in the hands of the owners of the same park that overshadowed Geauga Lake for all those years. The park was suddenly closed at the end of the 2007 season. Instead of celebrating a 20th anniversary in 2008, Raging Wolf Bobs was left to rot at the edge of the lake.

Build it bigger

Although the first two coasters brought Dinn and Summers some recognition it would be the opening of Timber Wolf at Worlds of Fun in Kansas that made coaster enthusiasts really take notice. Worlds of Fun had built several notable attractions over the years, and in 1989 they turned to Dinn & Summers to build them a signature wood coaster. Attendees at the ACE Spring Conference held that year in Kansas City were amazed at the abundant airtime and quick directional changes the coaster had to offer. Enthusiasts everywhere were praising this unique woodie in the heart of the nation. One year after its debut it was voted the number one coaster in the world by the readers of Inside Track, a popular enthusiast publication. Over the years the ride has been tamed with the addition of a trim brake on the first drop, and like many woodies from that era, it is always in need of track work. Today it is still the only woodie in a park that seems to lose a coaster every time it gains a new one.

Timber Wolf

Dorney Park, just outside of Allentown, Pa. was another centuries old park with a rich tradition. Already home to a Herb Schmeck out and back coaster, the park was looking for something to thrust them into the limelight. Park owner Harris Weinstein had two requirements. He wanted a wood coaster built along the side of the hill overlooking the lake at the edge of the property and he wanted a record-breaking drop. The result was Hercules with a 148 foot drop down to the lake that was the tallest in the world on a wood coaster. In addition to its record-breaking drop and outrageous Jet-Star-like turn around, Hercules had a few other fun elements. There was a drop into a twisted turnaround right out of the station, there was a triple up following the big u-turn that brought the train all the way back up to the top of the hillside, and a drop under the station that was loaded with airtime. Coaster Con XII attendees converged upon the coaster in June and were ecstatic with the ride experience. But even in that first year, the Dinn shuffle through the high speed turn over the water was extremely pronounced. Curtis Summers had calculated the perfect angle for the turn, but with all the forces directed downward toward the bottom of the train, the train hunted side to side between the side rails trying to find the right path along the turn. Eventually the angle was lessened a bit to keep the coaster trains pressed against the outside rail. But that high speed turnaround continued to be problematic requiring several retrackings and structural reinforcement. The original trailered trains were replaced with articulating trains, but the problems continued. By year five a trim brake was added to the first drop. Then in 1994, Cedar-Fair, the current park owners, called in John Pierce for some off-season modifications. When Pierce was through, the once mighty Hercules had been emasculated. The triple up had been reduced to a double-up and lowered in height, the drop under the station was reduced 15 feet. With the lower heights, the brake on the first drop was tightened to brake even harder. Over the years the coaster’s popularity waned, and Cedar Fair grew tired of pouring money into it. At the end of the 2003 season, the mythological hero at just 14 years of age, was removed from the park, to be replaced by a shiny new B&M floorless coaster. Dubbed Hydra the Revenge, Cedar Fair took the liberty of rewriting Greek mythology. Apparently the Hydra, slain by Hercules over 2000 years ago, came back to seek its revenge on the mighty hero.


A foursome

1990 was to be the busiest year for the Dinn Corporation. Four new coaster projects were on the books including another record-breaker. All four coasters were to receive trailered PTC trains with a new feature—individual ratcheting lapbars. These new lapbars could be individually adjusted to accommodate riders of varying sizes. Originally none of the lapbars had any type of spring mechanism to keep them in place. Once the bar was released by the station attendant it dropped, often unsuspectingly, into the riders lap. During the course of the ride it was not uncommon for the bar to keep ratcheting down tighter to the point were it would frequently become uncomfortable for the rider.

The original Six Flags Park in Arlington, Texas had been soliciting designs for a new coaster for a couple of years. Casting aside a proposal from local designer Bill Cobb, they decided instead to employ the services of Dinn and Summers. Being in Texas of course, meant that everything had to be bigger, and the Texas Giant was to be the tallest wooden coaster in the world. But height was not the only notable statistic. At 4,920 feet it would be second only to the Beast in length, and a block brake in the center of the ride would allow for three train operation—a first for a Dinn & Summers coaster. But size was not the only difficulty the Dinn Corporation had to deal with. Straddling Johnson Creek, the coaster was built in a flood plain and had to be constructed to endure occasional flooding when the banks of the creek overflowed. As a matter of fact flooding did occur during the construction of the Giant and work had to be halted until the waters receded. The coaster opened pretty much on time in March of 1990. After climbing 143’ the coaster dropped 137’ then rose into a curved climb. Although it stood taller than Hercules, it did not have as long of a drop, and the Pennsylvania park took issue with Six Flags’ claims that it had the tallest coaster in the world. Eventually a judge decided that since the coasters were in different parts of the country and did not share the same market, each park could lay claim to the world’s tallest coaster. The wild ride with its out-of-control finish had many an enthusiast proclaiming the Giant their number one coaster. But the coaster proved to be a little too wild, even for the trains. The very first year, one of the ball hitches was sheared off the coaster and the train came limping back to the station held together by its safety chains. In another incident a rider came back to the station holding a detached lap bar over his head for the attendants to see. Modifications were quickly made to tame the ride, and the modifications continued for many years. The trains were sent back to PTC and rebuilt with articulating cars instead of trailered cars, and eventually springs were added to the lapbars to keep them from ratcheting down on riders. Even with the various alterations the Giant still claimed the number one spot on the Inside Track readers poll, and eight years later would claim the number one spot on the Amusement Today Golden Ticket Awards for two years in a row. Such a massive ride however, requires a lot of upkeep, and as the years marched on, the Giant always seemed to be in need of track work. With newer designs and an always aggressive ride, the Giant can no longer claim to be a number one coaster. But it still has legions of fans who come every year to ride this legendary wood coaster.

Texas Giant

Over in Atlanta, Six Flags park number two was also ready to add a second wood coaster to its lineup, but decided to leave the record-breaking to the Texans. Six Flags Over Georgia asked for a coaster based on an already proven design, the Coney-Island Cyclone. This would be the second Cyclone-clone for a Six Flags park following the Texas Cyclone, built in 1976 as a bigger and better version of the original. Like its Texas twin, Summers designed for Georgia a mirror-image to the New York version. And to pay homage to the original, this coaster would open with something no other Dinn and Summers coaster had—a coat of white paint. Opening just one week after the Texas Giant, the Georgia Cyclone featured everything the Cyclones had been famous for—steep drops, high-lateral turns and lots of airtime. ACEers everywhere were giving the coaster accolades soon after opening proclaiming it had non-stop slam-bam brutality. But the non-stop excitement didn’t last long. Before ACE managed to get to the park for its Spring Conference in April, trim brakes had been added to the coaster. Although it still starts off with a wallop, the trim brakes tend to suck the life out of the ending. Eventually the trailered trains were replaced on this coaster as well, but what remains are coaster seats with hard dense foam backs and dense foam seat cushions. With the lack of padding, every bounce in the track is transferred directly to the rider’s spine resulting in a somewhat uncomfortable ride. Although the coaster still offers plenty of steep drops and airtime, the ride is almost a test of endurance.

Georgia Cyclone

Up in the cold white North, Darien Lake’s Predator had a few more months to get ready as the season there did not start until May. Darien Lake was a relatively large property that began life as campground and picnic park in the late 1960s. It officially became an amusement park in 1980 and featured a number of flat rides mostly from HUSS Maschinenfabrik as it served as a U.S. showcase for new Huss rides during the 1980s. The only coaster at the park was Viper, a Huss-Arrow looper from 1982. A wood coaster was just what the park needed for its 10th anniversary, and Predator delivered. The L-shaped double out-and-back layout featured numerous drops and 45 degree banked curves. Situated right along the shore of Darien Lake, the coaster surprises riders with several moments of airtime. For the first couple of years, Predator was well liked by enthusiasts, and this may be the only Dinn and Summers coaster that never received any modifications. Unfortunately it never received much of anything else, either. Although all the other trailered PTC trains from this era have since been replaced, Predator is the only coaster that continues to run these original trains. Coupled with track that may have never been maintained or replaced, Predator was almost unrideable when ACE visited in the Spring of 2006. Since that time the park has been sold, and the new owners have given Predator some much needed maintenance and have started track replacement. They are also looking into refurbishing or replacing the trains in the near future. With a little care, perhaps this once-popular coaster, can reclaim its spot in the limelight.


The final coaster to debut in 1990 was at a little park that opened just three years prior on the grounds of the Kentucky Exposition Center. Kentucky Kingdom was a 38-acre permanent park that became part of the Kentucky State Fair for a few weeks in August. At the time, the park had just one roller coaster, an enclosed Jet Star that ran in the dark. For the 1990 season they added a Vekoma Boomerang and expanded to a new area across the street anchored by the new wood coaster Thunder Run. The coaster, which opened on August 11 just days before the start of the fair had an interesting history. It was designed by John Fetterman of Knoebels four years earlier. According to John Fetterman “Thunder Run was designed in early 1986 for Americana. It started on the back of a proverbial napkin —we even joked about it at the time — while at a Safety Seminar in Greenville, SC, which I, Jim Martini, and several other Knoebels Grove workers were attending, while Dinn was making a presentation on wooden coaster safety there. Jim, Charlie, and I were present for an evening meal as I sketched out the idea of making a high-speed turn at low heights. That had grown out of both my familiarity with the Jet Star first drop, of which we had an operating model, and an intellectual curiosity for making turns in a manner different from the classical Miller/Schmeck model of slow-and-high directional changes.” The design was presented to Ron Berni a manager at Americana Park in Middletown, Ohio. At Dinn’s request Fetterman sent the completed design, including ledger heights and placements to Dennis Starkey, an engineer with Curtis Summers, Inc. Americana failed to contract the building of the ride. Ron Berni left Americana and in 1990 was working in a position of responsibility for Kentucky Kingdom. “It is thus reasonable to assume that he was the reason that the ride designed for Americana was finally built at Kentucky Kingdom” Fetterman told RC! The first drop leads to a ground level turn that had probably served as inspiration for Hercules built the year before, but the following speed bumps that grew successively larger were quite unique. More ground level turns and additional speed bumps gave this exciting woodie a reputation for producing prodigious airtime. Like most coasters of this era, it too was tweaked after a few years and one of the speed bumps was removed. The trailered trains were eventually rebuilt into articulating trains. Shuffling was a problem for a while, but in recent years the coaster has been getting track work, and seems to be running better. Even though one speed bump was removed, the coaster still produces an amazing amount of airtime in its opening volley.

Thunder Run

The final chapter

By 1991 PTC had stopped building new trailered trains. Many of the first sets of trains built for the Dinn and Summers coasters had already been sent back to the PTC factory to be remodeled into articulating trains with four sets of wheels on each car and a back axel that was able to rotate a few degrees in each direction. Mean Streak would be the first new coaster to premiere with 2-bench articulated trains.

Six Flags ordered up two more Cyclone-clones. One for Great Adventure and another for Magic Mountain. For various reasons, the Cyclone for Great Adventure never materialized. Magic Mountain in California gave their new ride a moniker that was a clever play on words: Psyclone. The director of maintenance, had a bad experience with PTC trains on Colossus back in the early 80s and wasn’t real happy with the current Morgan trains either. He insisted the park look to another manufacturer, so B&M was contracted to provide three trains for the new ride. Although roomy and fairly comfortable, the B&M trains were heavy and had a higher center of gravity than PTC or Morgan trains. Instead of building an exact clone, the California version was tailored to provide a speedier ride and smoother transitions. Banking on the turns was increased, and the structure had to be modified to meet earthquake codes. Enthusiast reaction to the new coaster was somewhat mixed. Of all the cy-clones, this was clearly the most distinctive from the original. The first drop wasn’t much of a drop, and the tunnel was in an odd place. But the increasing speed enhanced the latter parts of the ride. Soon after opening however the modifications began. The first drop was reprofiled a couple of times, and trim brakes were added to the course. The train was slowed to the point that the highly banked turns became almost comical. Riders ended up lying on their sides as they crawled through each turn. The heavy trains took their toll on the track and Magic Mountain neglected the coaster for years. The poor location and lack of visual appeal contributed to the coaster’s lack of popularity. It seems the Magic Mountain masses prefer brightly colored multi-lopping coasters, and they just weren’t interested in a 90-foot woodie in the corner of the park. In 2007, the 16 year old ride was bulldozed and hauled away.

Cedar Point had a reputation for taking existing coaster concepts and turning them into record-breaking rides. They ordered up a woodie that would end the “tallest” debate once and for all. Mean Streak was to top out at 161 feet making it the undisputed tallest wooden coaster in the world. Looking somewhat like the Texas Giant it was not only taller but faster at 65 mph and longer at 5,427 feet, making it the second longest wooden coaster in the world. But bigger doesn’t necessarily mean better. Although the first and third drops were rather impressive, the rest of the coaster didn’t live up to the hype. Much of the track was elevated within the structure, and the trains just plodded along without much excitement. To further add to its dilemma, the upward climb out of the first drop had developed a nasty shimmy just a few weeks after it opened. Enthusiasts were also surprised at the amount of sway present in the structure as the trains negotiated the track high above. Almost immediately Cedar Point began making modifications. They first tried to reprofile the curve on the first uphill climb, then they reprofiled some of the drops. The structure was shored up to keep it from swaying. The park tried shortening the trains. A sprinkler system was added to moisturize the coaster. Finally Cedar Fair ended up adding a trim brake to the first drop. By the time the park was done modifying the coaster, what little fun it had to start with, had for the most part been removed. Cedar Point continues to try to take care of their monster as best they can, and the ride is finally smooth—if nothing else.

Mean Streak

Park owners at this point should have realized that wood coasters made of southern yellow pine and built with traditional construction methods should never be made this big, but of course they didn’t learn. Just one year later a new park in Texas attempted an even taller coaster from a different builder with the same disastrous results.

The final collaborative effort of the Dinn and Summers duo was to take place in the Netherlands at Efteling Park. Pegasus, a junior coaster with a height of only 59 feet was designed by Curtis Summers and was to be built by the Dinn Corporation and Intamin. Charlie Dinn however was not happy with the working the conditions overseas and was concerned for the safety of his crew. He pulled out of the project and RCCA stepped in  to finish the coaster.

Soon afterward, Charlie Dinn retired and closed the Dinn Corporation. Curtis Summers designed one more coaster, Jupiter at Kijima Amusement Park in Japan. This first-ever wood coaster for Japan was built by the Intamin Corporation and opened in July of 1992. However, Curtis Summers never saw the finished product. On May 11, 1992 he died suddenly from a heart attack.

Dinn and Summers can be credited with a resurgence in interest in wood coasters in amusement parks. After John Allen’s retirement, few coaster designers and builders were left. They are both widely responsible for the move from Douglas Fir wood as the coaster material of choice for the previous 20-30 years to the cheaper and more readily available southern yellow pine. In a short four-year period Dinn and Summers added ten new coasters to the U.S. landscape. It is unfortunate that during that time, parks were obsessed with building record-breaking monstrosities that proved to be problematic. Some may question if Summers adequately engineered the coasters to compensate for the weaker and more pliable southern yellow pine wood. That same pine also resulted in a less durable track bed, which quickly became rough. Whatever the case, almost every coaster had to be modified after it was turned over to park owners, and most turned out to be maintenance nightmares. Enthusiasts of that era however were happy to have ten new coasters to experience and Dinn and Summers paved the way for future wooden coasters.

Charlie’s daughter Denise Dinn and her husband Randy Larrick went on to form Custom Coasters, Inc. (CCI) employing many of the same people from the Dinn Corporation. Two Curtis Summers, Inc. designers, Larry Bill and Dennis Starkey remained in the coaster business. Dennis Starkey started the Stand Company which continued to design coasters including Viper at Six Flags Great America and the Dania Beach Hurricane. Larry Bill went to work for Denise Dinn designing coasters for CCI then in 2002 became one of the founding partners of The Gravity Group. 

This article first appeared in the Spring 2008, issue of RollerCoaster!, and is reprinted here courtesy of American Coaster Enthusiasts. For subscription information, visit

Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk's Looff Carousel celebrates 100 years

STORYJeffrey Seifert, staff writer for Amusement Today

SANTA CRUZ, Calif. — The oldest ride at the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk passed the century mark in 2011. Charles I.D. Looff, one of the earliest and most successful builders of carousels delivered the "Merry Go Round” to the Boardwalk in August of 1911.

Looff, who immigrated from Denmark as a young man, began building carousels in 1875 installing his first at Mrs. Lucy Vanderveer’s Bathing Pavilion at Coney Island, New York City, in 1876. Being one of the first, many of the subsequent Coney Island carousel carvers learned their skills from Charles Looff. In 1910 he moved his carousel and ride building factory to Long Beach, California.

A bathing beach

Like many amusement parks at the turn of the 20th century, the Boardwalk began as a bathing beach. Americans were becoming more prosperous and less dependent on constant work. They realized that recreation was a good thing, and swimming had become a popular pastime.

John Leibrandt opened the first public bathhouse on the beach in 1865. The Santa Cruz beach, with its southern shore on the north side of Monterey Bay was protected from the harsh waves typical of the west coast and offered a beautiful and serene area with safe, open-water swimming. Other bathhouses soon followed along with restaurants, curio shops, photo stands and hotels.

In 1904, Fred W. Swanton, whose first Santa Cruz hotel was destroyed in a fire, opened the Neptune casino and boardwalk that he promoted as the “Atlantic City of the West.” That too was destroyed in a fire just two years later, but that didn’t stop Swanton. He formed the Santa Cruz Beach Company in 1906 and opened an even grander casino in 1907, along with a gigantic natatorium that offered one of the largest heated saltwater pools om the west coast. Other attractions soon followed including a miniature steam train that same year, a Thompson Scenic Railway in 1908 and the Looff Carousel in 1911.

Americans fall in love with the 'Carousel'

Though dating back to France in the mid 16th century, it wasn’t until the late 1800s and the adaptation of a steam engine that carousels became popular.

Americans had become enchanted with these new rides in the late 1800s and early 1900s and the golden age of carousels is generally considered to be from 1905 to 1925. Visitors flocked to the many amusement parks scattered throughout the country to take a spin on the “painted ponies.” Riders and spectators alike loved the beautiful carved horses, the calliope music and the glow of the relatively new incandescent lights.

It is estimated that as many as 3,000 carousels were produced in this short time period but less than 175 of those remain in operation today.

The Santa Cruz BeachMerry Go Round

The Santa Cruz Beach Merry Go Round is a magnificent example of those golden age carousels.

It features 73 hand-carved horses, each one unique. Most of the horses display their teeth in an open mouth, but six of the steeds are closed-mouth — an uncommon style.

All of them feature elaborate and colorful details: real horse tails, muscular bodies and decorative jewels. Some of the horses sport swords at their sides and decorative garlands around their neck. Many of the horses have items strapped behind their saddles such as a fish, lamb, pheasant, horn, jug, blanket, or a cluster of fruit. Two Roman chariots, decorated with cherubs and rams, are provided for the faint of heart, small children, or women who, because of their long dresses, did not wish to straddle a horse. Most of the jumping horses are mounted in columns of four with all four horses having the same color: white, black, brown, bay, tan or gray. The two standing horses are on the outside row next to each of the chariots.

This particular carousel is one of only a few known to be a “pure” carousel. All of the horses on the ride were provided by the same company that built the carousel. Some horses have had to be replaced over the years, but the park was able to acquire Looff horses from other carousels that have been dismantled or have replaced their wood horses.

Grab a ring

It is also one of the few that still features a working ring dispenser. Although extremely popular during the golden age, there are, today, perhaps less than a dozen carousels in the U.S. where riders can reach for the brass ring, and even fewer have jumping horses on the outside row, making this particular carousel even more unique.

Originally iron rings were dispensed with one or two brass rings included per ride. Those lucky few who grabbed a brass ring were able to exchange it for a prize, often a free ride ticket.

Today, the rings are steel, with brass-plated rings used on special occasions. Riders are asked to toss the rings into a large clown’s gaping mouth, where they are rewarded with flashing lights and bells if they hit the target, but many of the rings are taken home as souvenirs. For every six to seven people who reach for the rings, one is taken home, meaning that over 85,000 rings have to be purchased each year.

But pilfering rings is nothing new — a 1911 photograph shows a sign pleading “Please do not take the rings!” The ring dispenser is automatically loaded with rings recovered from the clown's mouth via an elaborate mechanism underneath the carousel. Prior to 1950, a park worker called a "ring boy" manually recovered the rings and fed them into the metal arm. For a brief time during the 1970s, dispensing of rings was discontinued and ridership plummeted by about 75 percent.

Listen to the music

The carousel was installed with a Ruth and Sohn band organ and it has been providing music for most of the 100 years the ride has been in operation. Records show the band organ was built in 1894 under the watchful eye of Adolph Ruth at the Ruth & Sohn factory in the Black Forest town of Waldkirch, Germany. The rare 96-key organ includes 342 pipes, a glockenspiel and percussion instruments. No one has been able to determine where the organ spent its first 17 years or how it was acquired by Looff.

A rare Wurlitzer 165 band organ was purchased in 2007 from a private collector. That organ, built in 1918 by the Rudolph Wurlitzer Company of North Tonawanda, New York, operated at the Looff carousel at San Francisco’s Playland-at-the-Beach amusement park for 54 years. The Wurlitzer 165 was installed in March 2007, and provided music during the Ruth organ’s refurbishment.

The Ruth was shipped to the Stinson Band Organ Company in Bellefontaine, Ohio where it was given a major restoration to bring back its exceptional playing capabilities. The Ruth also received a new façade with carved figures and colorful scrollwork, and was then carefully shipped back to Santa Cruz.

The Boardwalk is also in possession of Wurlitzer 146 band organ that was added to the carousel building earlier this year. Each of the three offers a unique sound and all three band organs can be heard as each takes a turn to play music throughout the day. Thanks to a new Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) system, the organs can play contemporary music as well as the old classics.

As it was back at the turn of the century, not everyone comes to the carousel building to ride a horse. The organs themselves are attractions as fans gather to watch the historic music machines mechanically bellow the distinctive calliope music.

Maintenance is ongoing

As one would expect, a century-old carousel requires constant maintenance. The Boardwalk has restored many of the beautiful carved steeds, and those that could not be restored were replaced with Looff horses from parks in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and Belmont Park in San Diego. Ongoing maintenance includes touching up chipped paint, frequent polishing of the brass poles and mirrors, as well as mechanical adjustments and repairs. Antique hand-carved horses are becoming increasingly rare and difficult to acquire. In 1911, the carousel cost $18,000; now a single horse at auction can fetch close to that amount.

Supporting cast

Complementing the Looff Carousel is the Giant Dipper roller coaster, built in 1924 by Charles’ son Arthur Looff. On February 24, 1987, the U.S. Secretary of the Interior designated both the Looff Carousel and the Giant Dipper as National Historic Landmarks. Fewer than 2,500 places bear this national distinction, which recognizes historic places that possess exceptional value or quality illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States.

Celebrating 100 years

Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk has been celebrating all year long with 100 years of carousel magic. Celebrations have included brass ring days, a carousel memory wall where friends or loved ones can be honored or commemorated with a bronze plaque inside the carousel building, a carousel-themed art exhibit and unique carousel centennial merchandise.

Along with 100th anniversary fine art posters and books are a special-edition 2007 Boardwalk Carousel bottle of syrah wine from Hallcrest Vineyards, and a collector's edition Horse Tale Ale from Santa Cruz Mountain Brewing. The ale harkens back to 1911 when 25 brewers in the San Francisco area, including one in Santa Cruz, brewed a California Common or Steam Ale.

Amusement Today salutes the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk for preserving its historic 1911 Looff Carousel. It is one of the few in the world that has been galloping in its original location for more than 100 years. May it spin guests who come to ride the painted ponies and reach for the brass ring for many more years to come.

This article first appeared in the November 2011, issue of Amusement Today, and is reprinted here courtesy of Amusement Today. For subscription information, visit

Book Review: Images of America Frontier Village

REVIEWJeffrey Seifert, staff writer for Amusement Today

The familiar story is often repeated in cities across the U.S: Following a trip to Disneyland, a local entrepreneur is inspired to create a similar theme park in his or her hometown. Some, such as Six Flags Over Texas, thrived and became multi-million dollar enterprises. Others, such as New York's Freedomland succumbed in just a few years, while parks like Arizona's Legend City suffered financial difficulties and struggled for decades.

In San Jose, California, local entrepreneur Joe Zukin, was motivated to build a Wild West theme park for the local region. After rounding up financial backers he purchased a 33-acre parcel of the former 600-acre Hayes estate in south San Jose. Construction began in 1960, and with an investment of $3 million, Frontier Village opened to the public on November 4, 1961.

Encroaching subdivisions and changing economic conditions forced the park to close in 1980, but those who visited or worked there still have fond memories of the park. Those memories can be relived in Frontier Village, a new Arcadia Images of America book — part of an immense series that commemorates a town, region, or attraction with vintage photographs captioned to tell a story. This book, written by Bob Johnson, is divided into eight chapters. Chapter one tells the story of the opening of the Village and chapter eight tells of the efforts to keep the park open after nearly two decades of successful operation. The remaining chapters highlight a specific feature of the park such as rides and attractions, costumed characters and the actors used in the gunfight shows.

Groundbreaking took place on August 1, 1960. The tract of land purchased from the Hayes estate was forested with native oak trees supplemented with exotic species such as pepper trees, cypresses, palms and cedars that had been collected over the years. Founder Joe Zukin hired movie set designer Laurie Hollins to design the park. The layout was carefully planned to fit into the existing landscape, requiring the removal of only four trees during construction.

The Frontier Village Main Street was built to resemble the 1890s Old West. Many of the buildings had two stories with the upper floor used for office space for the park staff. In addition to the obligatory Silver Dollar Saloon, visitors would find a General Store, Marshal's Office, Arcade, Bank, Village Glass Shop and Glass Blowing Shoppe. The General Store carried souvenirs while other buildings housed eateries and shops. The Marshal's Office had an actual jail cell that children could explore.

Attractions at the park included a 1920s Herschell Merry-Go-Round, Arrow Development scaled-down locomotive and train (currently in operation at Burke Junction in Cameron Park, Calif.), stagecoach ride, Rainbow Falls Fishing Pond and the Lost Frontier Mine. Designed by Laurie Hollins, the Lost Frontier Mine used ore cart conveyance vehicles supplied by Arrow Development. Guests were transported into an underground wonderland filled with waterfalls, bubbling sulfur pools, glowing stalactites, falling boulders and other special effects augmented with eerie sounds. In keeping with the Wild West theme, gunfights and train holdups were a common occurrence, and the bad guys could cause trouble wherever they wanted, often robbing the General Store and even the Sweet Shop. The marshal, however, always prevailed.

Over the years the park thrived, installing new attractions almost yearly. Among the rides added were an Eli Bridge Big Eli Wheel and Scrambler, Hrubetz Roundup, Sellner Tilt-A-Whirl, Eyerly Spider, Arrow guide-limited antique car and 1960s autos, Bisch-Rocco Flying Scooters and a Mack Rides Blauer Enzian.

As the park thrived, so did the surrounding area, and by the mid-1970s the park was surrounded by urban sprawl. Homeowners started complaining about noise from the park and asked if smaller charges could be used during the park's gunfights. In 1973 Zukin sold the park to Rio Grande Industries, a division of the Rio Grande Railroad. Rio Grande had purchased Arrow Development the year before and had plans to manage several theme parks, in addition to owning a ride manufacturer.

In 1976 Marriott opened the Great America theme park just 15 miles north in the city of Santa Clara. Frontier Village saw a 19 percent drop in attendance the first year, but in the years following, attendance slowly recovered. Frontier Village continued to show a profit but Rio Grande Industries felt that in order to remain competitive the park would need to expand. An elaborate $10 million expansion plan was proposed but was, of course, met with opposition from the neighborhoods that had encroached upon the park. After years of delays, the city eventually approved the plans with the stipulation that Rio Grande spend an additional $1.8 million on traffic improvements and noise abatement. By that time Rio Grande had decided that Frontier Village was no longer a good investment and felt the land was too valuable to be used as an amusement park.

Rio Grande gave park patrons one last season to say goodbye. Known as the "Last Round-Up," the season was a busy one averaging 30,000 guests each day. On September 28, 1980, after 19 years of operation, the park closed its gates for good.

Frontier Village was popular from the beginning, averaging between 425,000 to 450,000 guests at its peak. The park has a special place in the hearts of many people in Northern California and the surrounding area who had the opportunity to visit The Village in its heyday. Author Bob Johnson, who recently published an Arcadia Postcard series book on San Jose, has assembled an amazing collection of images from the San Jose Public Library, San Jose University, and private collectors — enough to fill the 128-page book. It offers a remarkable look at the fantasy frontier town where gunfights always ended with bad guys being carted off to Boot Hill.

Images of America Frontier Village retails for $21.99 and is available at local bookstores, online retailers or through Arcadia Publishing at or by calling (888) 313-2665.

This article first appeared in the September 2013, issue of Amusement Today, and is reprinted here courtesy of Amusement Today. For subscription information, visit

Book Review: Pacific Ocean Park

Chronicling the fantasy, frolic and folly of Pacific Ocean Park

REVIEWDean Lamanna, staff writer for Amusement Today

Deserving of its place in the pantheon of defunct playgrounds, Pacific Ocean Park (POP), active in Los Angeles between 1958-67, not only covered 28 acres of sand and surf on the border of Santa Monica and Venice, it straddled an uneasy line between Disneyesque, World’s Fair-inspired themed entertainment and traditional pier-based carnival fun.

It was a brazen balancing act that, while thrilling at first, began to fray quickly as big dreams obscured both financial reality and the cost of maintaining a complicated outdoor business on the water.

The dazzling birth and slow, rather shocking death of POP are documented vividly with text and vintage images in Pacific Ocean Park: The Rise and Fall of Los Angeles’ Space-Age Nautical Pleasure Pier (Process Media, hardcover, $34.95). Packing 15 years of research and interviews into 264 oversized pages graced with rare color and black-and-white images, authors Christopher Merritt and Domenic Priore trace POP’s early-20th century beginnings as two adjoining amusement parks — the Ocean Park Pier and the Lick Pier, jutting some 900 feet into the bay between the Santa Monica Pier to the north and the popular pleasure docks of Abbot Kinney’s Venice to the south.

By the mid-1950s, under the joint ownership of the Turf Club (proprietor of Santa Anita Park thoroughbred racetrack) and CBS Television, and spurred by Disneyland’s success, the dual pier complex was transformed from a loose collection of rides and concessions into a more aesthetically cohesive “oceanic wonderland” — complete with a sculptural, 60-foot starfish-shaped entrance adorned with whimsical seahorses and plastic bubbles, all enwrapped in fountains and a towering waterfall-façade.

POP, with a budget blowing way past its initially earmarked $3 million and a raft of craftsmen largely hired from Hollywood, opened three weeks late in July 1958 after nine months of frenzied planning and construction. It was an instant hit, drawing more than one million visitors by the end of that year. While ambitious new animal shows and attractions, including a walk-through called Neptune’s Kingdom featuring a dry-for-wet undersea world stocked with animated figures, were created, several preexisting rides were simply made over and renamed to the theme (e.g., the John Miller-designed, 1926-built Hi-Boy roller coaster became the Sea Serpent.) A sky ride with futuristic capsules ran high above the waves to the Mystery Island Banana Train, a jungle excursion, at the pier’s far end. And a Westinghouse-sponsored pavilion, the Enchanted Forest, extolled “the electrical miracles of today and tomorrow.”

The true roller coaster ride for POP began in the fall of 1959, when mounting debt outpaced the gate and ownership of the enterprise was transferred. At this point in the book, the research heft shifts from co-author Merritt, a theme park designer and historian (he also authored Knott’s Preserved, 2010), to pop culture expert Priore (Riot on Sunset Strip, Pop Surf Culture) and incorporates an overview of the changing youth and live entertainment climate between the beach and the Sunset Strip. The story becomes a riveting account of the political, cultural and urban renewal crosscurrents that — despite bursts of optimism in the form of TV dance shows and movies using POP as a backdrop — conspired to weaken further the pier’s fragile financial and structural underpinnings.

POP’s closure in late 1967 marked the beginning of an extended period of decay that saw deck-busting storms, arson-sparked fires and the formation of a territorial, sometimes violent surfing gang that slalomed through the pier’s rotting pilings. There’s no feel-good ending here. The publication of Pacific Ocean Park coincides, fittingly, with another cycle of Venice-area gentrification that has given rise to the moniker “Silicon Beach” — with rich Digital Age companies like Google dropping anchor locally. Some changes have been for the better, but efforts to bring amusements back to parts of the oceanfront have been squashed by fearful landowners and community leaders.

As anyone who has built a sandcastle knows, innovating at the tide line isn’t tidy. But recreation for the masses is essential, and down by the sea, America’s carny heart will always beat strongest.

This article first appeared in the November 2014, issue of Amusement Today, and is reprinted here courtesy of Amusement Today. For subscription information, visit